Nakamura T, Yamasaki H. Flicker Light Effects on Photosynthesis of Symbiotic Algae in the Reef- Building Coral Acropora digitifera (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Pac Sci 62(3): 341-350.
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At supersaturating light intensities, photosynthesis was less inhibited by flicker light than by constant light.
Due to the lens effect, light intensity in shallow-water environments sometimes reaches more than 9,000 mmol photons m 2 sec 1, corresponding to 300 to 500% of the surface light intensity (Schubert et al. 2001, in shallow estuary).