The Nature and Consequences of Indirect Effects in Ecological Communities J. Timothy Wootton Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 25:443-466 (Volume publication date November 1994) https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.25.110194.002303 PDF Available Five simple types of indirect effects have been regularly demonstrated in nature: exploitative competition, trophic cascades, apparent competition, indirect mutualism, and interaction modifications. Detailed experimental investigations of... Continue Reading →
Amyloodinium ocellatum has even been reported as a hyperparasite of a trematode parasite on the skin of [fish].
The role of nutrients in decomposition of a thecate dinoflagellate Tamar Zohary, Hans Güde, Utsa Pollingher, Bina Kaplan, Riki Pinkas, Ora Hadas Limnology and Oceanography, Volume 45, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 123–130 DOI: 10.4319/lo.2000.45.1.0123 PDF Available. Because of the low N and P content of thecae (C:N:P atomic ratios >3000:19: 1) relative to protoplasts (276 :51:1), the microbial... Continue Reading →
Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish A. Colorni*, A. Diamant Dis Aquat Org 65: 177–180, 2005, Published June 30 doi:10.3354/dao065177 Full PDF is available on the Int-Res link above! Under perturbed environmental conditions, specificity between fish hosts and their parasitic fauna often breaks down (Rohde 1982, Thoney & Hargis... Continue Reading →