Lactic acid bacteria vs. pathogens in the gastrointestinal tract of fish: A review
Einar Ringø, Lisbeth Løvmo, Mads Kristiansen, Yvonne Bakken, Terry M Mayhew
…before any infection can be established, pathogens must penetrate the primary barrier. In fish, the three major routes of infection are the skin, gills and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The GI tract is essentially a muscular tube lined by a mucous membrane of columnar epithelial cells that exhibit a regional variation in structure and function. In the last two decades, our understanding of the endocytosis and translocation of bacteria across this mucosa, and the sorts of cell damage caused by pathogenic bacteria, has increased.
When discussing cellular damage in the GI tract of fish caused by pathogenic bacteria, several important questions arise including: (1) Do different pathogenic bacteria use different mechanisms to infect the gut? (2) Does the gradual development of the GI tract from larva to adult affect infection? (3) Are there different infection patterns between different fish species? The present article addresses these and other questions.
Lots of folks have trouble keeping their fish alive due to pathogenic activity….probiotics (especially live food items) can help!